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Nanotechnolgy Study Raises Health Concerns

The New York Times
March 29, 2004

Health Concerns in Nanotechnology

Buckyballs, a spherical form of carbon discovered in 1985 and an important
material in the new field of nanotechnology, can cause extensive brain
damage in fish, according to research presented yesterday at a national
meeting of the American Chemical Society in Anaheim, Calif.

Eva Oberdörster, an environmental toxicologist at Southern Methodist
University in Dallas, said the buckyballs also altered the behavior of genes
in liver cells of the juvenile largemouth bass she studied.

Buckyballs are part of a group of materials called fullerenes for their
structural resemblance to the geodesic domes designed by Buckminster Fuller.
Synthetically produced buckyballs, along with more recently created
fullerenes like carbon nanotubes, have played a major role in igniting
interest in nanotechnology, the field in which researchers manipulate
materials with dimensions measured in nanometers. A nanometer is a billionth
of a meter - tens of thousands of times thinner than a human hair.

The new carbon molecules have been studied for numerous potential uses in
advanced computer processors, lubricants, fuel cells and drug delivery

But yesterday's report is the latest of several that raise questions about
the potential health and environmental effects of synthetic nanoscale
materials. Other researchers, including Dr. Oberdörster's father, Günter
Oberdörster, a professor of environmental medicine at the University of
Rochester, have shown that such particles can enter the brain. The fish
studies, however, were the first to indicate destruction of lipid cells, the
most common form of brain tissue.

Dr. Oberdörster of S.M.U. said that the results underscored the need to
learn more about how buckyballs and other nanoscale materials are absorbed,
how they might damage organisms and what levels of exposure represent
hazards. But she rejected arguments made by some nanotechnology critics that
the limited toxicological research to date justified a moratorium on the
development and sale of the new materials.

"This is a yellow light, not a red one," Dr. Oberdörster said in a telephone
interview last week.

Vicki L. Colvin, whose laboratory at Rice University's Center for Biological
and Environmental Nanotechnology supplied the buckyballs used by Dr.
Oberdörster, was even more cautious about the results, which have not yet
been reviewed by other scientists.

Dr. Colvin said that the surface characteristics of the lab's buckyballs,
which are not a form that is commercially available, needed further study.
She said that they had not been coated, a process that is commonly used to
limit the toxicity of such materials in applications like drug delivery.

David B. Warheit, a DuPont researcher who led a session on nanoparticles
last week at the Society of Toxicology's national meeting in Baltimore and
also presented a paper in Anaheim yesterday, said that numerous fundamental
questions about their toxicity are beginning to be addressed. Dr. Warheit
said that how nanoparticles are coated and how quickly they clump together
may be more important factors in toxicity than their size.

Some companies making nanoparticles have conducted toxicology studies that
might offer additional illumination. The extent of those studies is not
known, and some results have not been disclosed, either for competitive
reasons or because of the costs of preparing the data for publication in
scientific journals.

For example, C Sixty Inc., a start-up company in Houston working on drugs
and drug delivery systems based on buckyballs, said that unreported data on
its coated buckyballs in zebra fish embryos and adult rodents showed
toxicity levels comparable to or lower than many existing medicines.

The rodent tests indicated that C Sixty's buckyballs collect in the kidneys
and liver and are excreted like other wastes after completing their function
of delivering medicines, said Russell M. Lebovitz, the company's vice
president for research and business development.

The zebra fish studies were conducted by a contractor; the rodent studies
were done by Dr. Laura L. Dugan, an associate professor of neurology and
medicine at Washington University in St. Louis, Mr. Lebovitz said. Dr.
Dugan is preparing her work for submission to a scientific journal.

Copyright 2004 The New York Times Company